OOTW ANALYSIS CATEGORIES
The categories of OOTWs that were briefly described in the
research section are fully defined here. The definitions are
based on several official sources [2, 6, 12,
13, 16] and knowledgeable analysts [31,
88, 104, 117, 141, 152]. These definitions are widely
accepted in different communities, yet are inconsistent between
communities. Accordingly, the definitions have been modified by
the participants of the Monterey workshops to increase their
comprehensibility with respect to creating analytic tools.
Generally, a particular OOTW will consist of more than one
category, reflecting a complex situation. The attributes of an OOTW help describe the
situation. Definitive attributes identify the correct category,
while other attributes differentiate among possible situations
within a category.
Definition: Military operations to support diplomatic efforts
to reach a long-term political settlement.
- Peacekeeping Operations (PK) Definition: Military
operations undertaken with the consent of all
major parties to a dispute, designed to monitor and
facilitate implementation of an agreement and support
diplomatic efforts to reach a long-term political
settlement. Often involves ambiguous situations requiring
the peacekeeping force to deal with extreme tension and
violence without becoming a participant.
- Observer Missions Definition: Assisting in
the observance and maintenance of a cease-fire;
acting as a neutral witness for the handing-over
of personnel or property from one party to
another; and other limited operations.
- UN Chapter VI Peace Operations Definition:
Peacekeeping, as above.
- Preventive Diplomacy Definition:
Diplomatic actions taken in advance of a
predictable crisis to prevent, limit or mitigate
- Preventive Deployment Definition: a subset
of peacekeeping (consent is assumed) in which
(military) forces are deployed prior to the
eruption of hostilities, with a goal of
preventing active conflict.
- Delegatory Peacekeeping Definition:
Operations led by regional organizations but
sanctioned by the UN.
- Peacemaking Definition: The process of
diplomacy, mediation, negotiation, or other forms
of peaceful settlements that arranges an end to a
dispute and resolves issues that led to conflict.
- Military Support to (Domestic) Civil
Authorities (MSCA) Definition: When
authorized, armed forces assist in domestic
emergencies within the U.S.; FEMA has primary
responsibility. (Under provisions of the Posse
Comitatus Act, neither the active component
nor the Reserve may execute the law in the place
of duly appointed law-enforcement means without
specific Presidential or Congressional approval
and direction.) DOD participation is coordinated
through the Secretary of the Army.
- Peace Enforcement Operations (PE) Definition: The
application of military force, or threat of its use,
normally pursuant to international authorization, to
compel compliance with resolutions or sanctions designed
to maintain or restore peace and order.
- UN Chapter VII Peace Operations
Definition: Operations, short of general war,
requiring force to impose peace - also called
- Peace Imposition Definition: The same as
UN Chapter VII above.
- UN Chapter VI ½ Peace Operations
Definition: Operations requiring a show of force,
or small tactical operations, to enforce peace.
- Aggravated Peace Support Operation (APSO)
Definition: Operations falling between UN Chapter
VI and UN Chapter VII, and thus often referred to
as Chapter VI ½.
- Pre-Conflict Peace Building Definition:
Longer-term, non-military, economic, social and political
measures which can help states deal with emerging threats
- Post-Conflict Peace Building Definition:
Post-conflict actions, predominantly diplomatic and
economic, that strengthen and rebuild governmental
infrastructure and institutions in order to avoid a
relapse into conflict. May be associated with either
peacekeeping or peace enforcement.
- Arms Control Definition: Any plan, arrangement, or
process, resting upon explicit or implicit international
agreement, governing the numbers, types, and
characteristics of weapon systems or the numerical
strength, organization, equipment, deployment, or
employment of armed forces. Focuses on promoting
strategic military stability. Arms Control encompasses
Disarmament. May be associated with either peacekeeping
or peace enforcement.
- Deterrence Definition: May consist of either
actions or maintenance of a particular state, such as
level of preparedness, that create negative incentives
against another country or group engaging in war.
- Disarmament Definition: The reduction of a
military establishment to some level set by international
agreement. May be associated with either peacekeeping or
- Counterproliferation Definition: Efforts to impede
the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD:
chemical, biological, and nuclear or radiological
In this document, peacekeeping requires the consent of both
parties and peace enforcement does not. Peace enforcement may be
divided into two parts, UN Chapter VI ½ and UN Chapter VII
(peace imposition), by the level of impartiality shown by the
peace forces toward the opposing sides. For example, the UN
Police Action in Korea (the Korean War) was war. Following the
cessation of fighting, peace was imposed (on North Korea) by the
UN forces along the Demilitarized zone, showing partiality toward
the Republic of Korea. On the other hand, the NATO IFOR
operations in Bosnia in early 1996 were peace enforcement with
more impartiality. The earlier UN Protection Force (UNPROFOR)
operations were an attempt at peacekeeping, under an assumption
of consent by both sides.
Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief
Definition: Missions to promote human welfare, to reduce pain
and suffering, to prevent loss of life or destruction of property
from the aftermath of natural or man-made disasters. Includes
- Humanitarian Assistance Definition: Programs
conducted to relieve or reduce the results of natural or
manmade disasters or other endemic conditions such as
human pain, disease, hunger, or privation that might
present a serious threat to life or that can result in
great damage to or loss of property. In those operations
in which governmental structures have broken down, the
military may provide local authority through the
Civil-Military Operations Center (CMOC) to provide
essential humanitarian and technical expertise with the
goal to contain the situation and transition to another
- Humanitarian and Civic Assistance
Definition: Incidental assistance to the local
populace provided in conjunction with military
operations and exercises.
- Disaster Relief Definition: Disaster relief falls
within the overall context of humanitarian assistance but
is conducted in emergency situations to prevent loss of
life and property.
- Disaster Relief Domestic Definition: FEMA
is in charge; the military may become an asset to
local and state governments bringing specific
capabilities to contain the situation and assist
- Disaster Relief International Definition:
The host government is intact and requests
assistance to handle a natural or man-made
crisis; the military may become an asset to local
governments or international agencies to bring
specific capabilities to contain situation and
assist in recovery.
- Disaster Control Definition: Measures
taken before, during or after hostile action or
natural or manmade disasters to reduce the
probability of damage, minimize its effects, and
- Consequence Management Definition:
Measures taken after a WMD attack to alleviate
the damage, loss, hardship or suffering, restore
essential government services, protect public
health and safety, and provide emergency relief
to affected governments, businesses and
individuals. FEMA is the designated lead agency
for domestic operations.
National Integrity Operations
National integrity (NI) operations include counterdrug (CD),
combatting terrorism (CT), counterinsurgency (CI), and nation
assistance (NA) operations. The national integrity designation is
chosen because these operations, when providing support to a
foreign country, are supporting that country's integrity and
stability. When national integrity operations are conducted to
protect the United States, they support U.S. integrity and
stability. Domestic counterdrug operations and combatting
terrorism are largely within the purview of law enforcement
agencies. Within the United States, DOD support in these areas is
normally given to those organizations designated by the
Department of Justice, such as the Federal Bureau of
Investigation (FBI) and the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA). In
foreign countries, the Department of State performs the lead
function, usually as the head of a Country Team. In and over
international waters, the lead agency may be the Department of
Transportation (Coast Guard/Federal Aviation Administration) or
the Department of Defense, depending upon specific tasks to be
accomplished. Counterinsurgency and nation assistance (usually)
relate to the internal affairs of a single foreign country. The
U.S. Ambassador and his Country Team perform liaison with that
country and set the agenda as concerns military support.
- Counterdrug (CD) Operations Definition: Support to
federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies in
their efforts to disrupt the transfer of illegal drugs
into the U.S. Those active measures taken to detect,
monitor, and counter the production, trafficking, and use
of illegal drugs. Support efforts to interdict the flow
of illegal drugs at the source, in transit, and during
- Combatting Terrorism (CT) Definition: Actions
taken to oppose terrorism from wherever the threat.
- Antiterrorism Definition: Those passive
defensive measures taken to minimize
vulnerability to terrorism.
- Counterterrorism Definition: The full
range of offensive measures taken to prevent,
deter, and respond to terrorism.
- Counterinsurgency Definition: Those military,
paramilitary, political, economic, psychological, and
civic actions taken by a government to defeat insurgency.
Or, the use of military resources to provide support to a
host nation's counterinsurgency operations in the context
of foreign internal defense (FID) through logistical and
- Nation Assistance or Nation Building Definition:
U.S. support of host nation's efforts to promote
development, ideally through the use of host nation
- Security Assistance Definition: Providing
defense material, military training, and
defense-related services by grant, loan, credit,
or cash sales to further U.S. national policies
and objectives. May take place in either nation
assistance, counterinsurgency or counterdrug
- Foreign Internal Defense (FID) Definition:
Programs that encompass the total political,
economic, informational, and military support
provided to another nation to assist its fight
against subversion and insurgency. Also,
participation by civilian and military agencies
of one government in any of the action programs
taken by another government to free and protect
its society from subversion, lawlessness, and
insurgency. May take place in either nation
assistance, counterinsurgency or counterdrug
Nation assistance is the program under which U.S. assistance
is often provided for counterinsurgency, countering drugs, and
combatting terrorism. Thus nation assistance is more general in
nature. For instance, counterinsurgency always implies the threat
of lethal force against U.S. forces; nation assistance may, but
need not. Insurgencies often present relatively well-organized,
ideologically committed opponents, which may be backed by
significant outside interests; nation assistance need not involve
human opponents. Counterinsurgency involves support for an
existing government under pressure; nation assistance can occur
in a context in which no effective government exists.
Humanitarian assistance and disaster relief are often components
of national integrity operations, with scale depending in part
upon the functionality of the host country government.
Military contingency operations
Military contingency operations are similar to traditional
military operations. To the extent that traditional operations
are understood and adequate tools created, military contingency
operations analysis requirements are met. However, there are
holes in the tools for traditional operations and some
specialized models may be needed.
- Noncombatant Evacuation Operations (NEO)
Definition: Operations to relocate noncombatants from a
foreign country or host nation. The environment may be
permissive, uncertain, or hostile. The threat that
necessitates the NEO may be a natural disaster or may be
of human origin.
- Enforcement of Sanctions/Maritime Intercept Operations
(MIO)/Quarantines Definition: Coercive measures to
interdict the movement of certain types of designated
items into or out of a nation or specified area.
- Enforcing Exclusion Zones Definition: Prohibit
specified activities in a specific geographic area.
- Ensuring Freedom of Navigation (FON) and Overflight
Definition: Operations conducted to demonstrate U.S. or
international rights to navigate sea or air routes.
- Protection of Shipping Definition: U.S. forces
providing protection of U.S. flag vessels, U.S. citizens,
and their property against unlawful violence in and over
- Show of Force Operations Definition: A mission
carried out to demonstrate U.S. resolve in which U.S.
forces deploy to influence a situation that may be
detrimental to U.S. interests or national objectives. Can
take the form of combined training exercises, rehearsals,
forward deployment of military forces, or introduction
and buildup of military forces in a region.
- Strikes or Attacks Definition: Offensive
operations conducted to inflict damage on, seize, or
destroy an objective for political (or other) purposes or
to demonstrate U.S. capability and resolve to achieve a
favorable result in terms of U.S. national interests.
- Raids Definition: Usually a small-scale operation
involving swift penetration of hostile territory to
secure information, confuse the enemy, temporarily seize
an objective, or destroy installations.
- Recovery Operations/Search and Rescue (SAR) Definition:
The search for, location, identification, rescue, and
return of personnel or human remains, sensitive
equipment, or items critical to national security.
- Relocation of Refugees/Illegal Immigrants/Illegal
Emigrants Definition: Transporting, and often caring
for, refugees or other detained persons.
- Support to Insurgency Definition: Support for an
organized movement aimed at the overthrow of a
constituted government through the use of subversion and
armed conflict. DOD support, if and when authorized,
would probably be assigned to the Department of State,
the Country Team or to the Director of Central
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