OOTW ANALYSIS CATEGORIES

The categories of OOTWs that were briefly described in the research section are fully defined here. The definitions are based on several official sources [2, 6, 12, 13, 16] and knowledgeable analysts [31, 88, 104, 117, 141, 152]. These definitions are widely accepted in different communities, yet are inconsistent between communities. Accordingly, the definitions have been modified by the participants of the Monterey workshops to increase their comprehensibility with respect to creating analytic tools. Generally, a particular OOTW will consist of more than one category, reflecting a complex situation. The attributes of an OOTW help describe the situation. Definitive attributes identify the correct category, while other attributes differentiate among possible situations within a category.

Peace operations

Definition: Military operations to support diplomatic efforts to reach a long-term political settlement.

In this document, peacekeeping requires the consent of both parties and peace enforcement does not. Peace enforcement may be divided into two parts, UN Chapter VI and UN Chapter VII (peace imposition), by the level of impartiality shown by the peace forces toward the opposing sides. For example, the UN Police Action in Korea (the Korean War) was war. Following the cessation of fighting, peace was imposed (on North Korea) by the UN forces along the Demilitarized zone, showing partiality toward the Republic of Korea. On the other hand, the NATO IFOR operations in Bosnia in early 1996 were peace enforcement with more impartiality. The earlier UN Protection Force (UNPROFOR) operations were an attempt at peacekeeping, under an assumption of consent by both sides.

Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief

Definition: Missions to promote human welfare, to reduce pain and suffering, to prevent loss of life or destruction of property from the aftermath of natural or man-made disasters. Includes refugee problems.

National Integrity Operations

National integrity (NI) operations include counterdrug (CD), combatting terrorism (CT), counterinsurgency (CI), and nation assistance (NA) operations. The national integrity designation is chosen because these operations, when providing support to a foreign country, are supporting that country's integrity and stability. When national integrity operations are conducted to protect the United States, they support U.S. integrity and stability. Domestic counterdrug operations and combatting terrorism are largely within the purview of law enforcement agencies. Within the United States, DOD support in these areas is normally given to those organizations designated by the Department of Justice, such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA). In foreign countries, the Department of State performs the lead function, usually as the head of a Country Team. In and over international waters, the lead agency may be the Department of Transportation (Coast Guard/Federal Aviation Administration) or the Department of Defense, depending upon specific tasks to be accomplished. Counterinsurgency and nation assistance (usually) relate to the internal affairs of a single foreign country. The U.S. Ambassador and his Country Team perform liaison with that country and set the agenda as concerns military support.

Nation assistance is the program under which U.S. assistance is often provided for counterinsurgency, countering drugs, and combatting terrorism. Thus nation assistance is more general in nature. For instance, counterinsurgency always implies the threat of lethal force against U.S. forces; nation assistance may, but need not. Insurgencies often present relatively well-organized, ideologically committed opponents, which may be backed by significant outside interests; nation assistance need not involve human opponents. Counterinsurgency involves support for an existing government under pressure; nation assistance can occur in a context in which no effective government exists. Humanitarian assistance and disaster relief are often components of national integrity operations, with scale depending in part upon the functionality of the host country government.

Military contingency operations

Military contingency operations are similar to traditional military operations. To the extent that traditional operations are understood and adequate tools created, military contingency operations analysis requirements are met. However, there are holes in the tools for traditional operations and some specialized models may be needed.


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