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Complex Operational and Organizational Problems


PUBS: Simulation and Wargaming

edited by Charles Turnitsa, Curtis Blais and Andreas Tolk

Published by Wiley, 2022, 416 pages, ISBN #978-1-1196-0478-5.

Simulation and Wargaming book

"Chapter 14: Using an Ontology to Design a Wargame/Simulation System," by Dean S. Hartley III, pp. 335-366.

Both wargames and simulations require a model (in the most general sense of the word) of the domain of interest.  For a wargame/simulation system, the model must be consistent throughout the system.  This commonality is difficult to achieve when the model resides only in the minds of the creators.  An ontology provides a significant starting point for a well-defined model by identifying and defining all of the potentially needed components of the model and their relationships.  For some domains, the ontology may also identify the processes that connect causes to results; however, for domains involving human conflict, many of these processes are ill-defined.  These ill-defined processes must be supplied by human wargamers or by calls to theoretical or probabilistic algorithms in the simulation.  Thus, in human conflict domains, the ontology supplies a framework for the model definition and identifies the places where decisions are needed on wargaming or simulation algorithms.

In this chapter, I will describe the Modern Conflict Ontology and show how it provides the components that apply to a (generally) theater-level conflict.  Then I will show how the ontology specifies the places where calls to either the human decisions or algorithmic decisions are needed.  I will conclude with observations on modeling human conflict at different levels of granularity.


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Solving Complex Operational and Organizational Problems
Dr. Dean S. Hartley III, Principal