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Complex Operational and Organizational Problems

PROJECT: Requirements for a DIME/PMESII Model

Project Metadata Keywords
Label Name Other Year DurationYrs
Client Naval Research Lab (NRL) US Navy
Dates 2007 1
Employer Hartley Consulting
Partner ITT Corporation
Pubs DIME/PMESII Modeling, Hartley Consulting, Oak Ridge, TN author 2008
Consequence Management
Geopolitical analysis
Global War on Terrorism (GWOT)
Human factors
Human, Social, Cultural Behavior (HSCB) Modeling
Impact analysis
Irregular Warfare (IW)
Modeling, Simulation & Gaming (MSG)
Operations Other Than War (OOTW)
Stability Operations (SASO, SSTR)
Verification, Validation & Accreditation (VV&A)


Support the Naval Research Laboratory in developing high-level requirements and design for a DIME/PMESII model or suite of models that would be available to the government for review and validation without proprietary restrictions.


The general DIME/PMESII background can be found in the discussion of Analytical Tools for OOTW. The historical developments can be organized into three periods: the Academic Period, the Early DoD Period, and Current Period.

The Academic Period

The period from 1992 (and before) up to 1996 is the “Academic” period.  During this time most of the interest in what we now call DIME/PMESII operations belonged in the academic world.  Four tools have been chosen to represent the activities during this time, the Kansas Events Data System (KEDS) and the Protocol for the Assessment of Nonviolent Direct Action (PANDA).  KEDS is an organized collection of events that are relevant to various instabilities, with the organization aimed at understanding the implications of the events.  PANDA was the beginning of an automated tool to collect the events from electronically published news sources.  PANDA was expanded by its inventors, Virtual Research Associates (VRA) into Integrated Data for Events Analysis (IDEA) during the next period.  The Center for Computational Analysis of Social and Organizational Systems (CASOS) created the dynamic social networks model, Organizational Risk Analyzer (ORA).  In 1998, DoD became interested in it.  The Synthetic Environments for Analysis and Simulation (SEAS) model was begun during this period as an academic project.  Later, DoD became interested in it.  Simulex describes SEAS on its website

The SEAS-VIS model is a representation of the Institutions, Organizations, Leaders, Individuals, and Infrastructure that make up a society. The geography of the society is modeled at various levels including City, Province, Country, Region, and World in terms of Political, Military, Economic, Social, Information, and Infrastructure (PMESII) nodes. The virtual environment integrates multiple theories from various disciplines to program behaviorally accurate agents with dynamic rules that govern and guide their actions and interactions. SEAS-VIS facilitates a seamless and interchangeable integration of human and software agents and allows for testing the efficacy of theories, decisions, strategies, and tools.


Models are made fully transparent to allow for close scrutiny by the client, facilitating model critique and development.


SEAS-VIS offers the ability to do course of action analysis, test hypotheses, learn through experimentation, conduct effects-based operations and planning, and develop Operational Net Assessment. The product allows the user to evaluate and manage the challenges of international crises.

The Early DoD Period

The second period extends from 1996 roughly to 2001.  This is the “Early DoD” period.  During this period the DoD began to express interest in OOTWs.  Most of the applicable tools were dual-use, designed for combat operations, but having some use for OOTWs, such as logistics tools.  However, even they were often wrong-direction:  computing “tail” given “tooth,” rather than computing “tooth” given “tail.”  Some databases existed, supporting warnings of state failures and there were some special application tools, such as counter-narcotics and disaster models.  And there were some potentially useful models; however, they were not widely used. 

Spurred by the U.S. Pacific Command (USPACOM), a series of conferences were held to define the domain and identify research and development needs.

 Just prior to the start of the Early DoD period and lasting into the “Current” period, a number of books were published that contained lessons from various DIME/PMESII type operations or theoretical discussions on the topic.  The major source of these books has been the Command and Control Research Program (CCRP), an OSD activity.

During the Early DoD period some tools were built or begun, including COST, SEAS and DIAMOND UK.  The Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) was built ca. 1998-99.  The following lists the requirements for costing tools and indicates which COST supported.

 The Diplomatic and Military Operations in a Non-warfighting Domain (DIAMOND) was begun by the United Kingdom’s (UK) Ministry of Defense (MOD) Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL).  The following description is taken from a report on its Verification and Validation (V&V) [13].

DIAMOND is a moderately-fast running, high-level, stochastic, object-oriented simulation of peacekeeping, peace enforcement and humanitarian aid operations (collectively called Peace Support Operations (PSO)). The major aspects of the technical design include.

•     A simple node and arc network that provides a graphical representation of the region and environment allowing the model to represent key areas of interest.  Key facilities, such as airports and civilian shelter can be represented.

•     The representation of key actors and contributors to PSO by use of Entities.  These represent the capabilities and behaviors of military units, civilians, non-military organizations, and the leaders or commanders for each.  Entities interact with each other and the environment and exchange or consume key commodities such as food, fuel and ammunition.

•     A mechanism to organize entities into common ‘parties’ that represent specific organizations or common groups within a scenario.  These parties have an appropriate command structure and communications network to facilitate the allocation of missions and flow of intelligence throughout the party.  Parties have relationships with one another that define their interactions.

•     A mechanism to represent each party's concept of operations by nesting objectives in a series of plans and for those objectives to consist of a series of missions which entities can prosecute during a campaign.  Commanders within a party allocate resources to achieve their objectives in line with the sequence of plans and the simulation completes when a set number of parties achieve their end state conditions or when a predetermined period of time has elapsed.

•     A mechanism (referred to as negotiation) to obtain access to an area denied to one party by another and to allow multi-party co-operation to achieve aims and objectives without having to rely entirely on their own resources.

•     A mechanism to allow entities to gain information on their environment and other entities through sensing, interactions and communication during model run.  This information is organized into a local picture that allows those entities to make informed decisions on how they should prosecute their missions and activities delegated to them by their superior commanders.

 The Current Period

The Current period began about 2001 and is marked with an increase in interest in DIME/PMESII models, both in their creation and their use.

In 2005, the DoD used the FAST Toolkit to support the investigation of DIME/PMESII issues for the QDR.

In the latter part of the Current period, several efforts have been undertaken to understand the current status.


Three broad areas were included: metadata, VV&A, and modifications to the requirements framework.

Metadata for DIME/PMESII Models

Metadata is a fancy word for extra information about data or models.  The simplest example for metadata on data is the source and date information on a particular datum.  The corresponding metadata for the model would be requirements on the nature of a particular input.  For example, the input might require a distance denominated in kilometers, rather than miles.

Syntactics, or syntax, is concerned with the way sentences are constructed from smaller parts, such as words and phrases. Semantics is the study of meaning in communication. In computer science, semantics permits programs to be separated into their syntactical part (grammatical structure) and their semantic part (meaning). One of the modern applications of ontology deals with semantic web. In computer science,ontologies are representations of a set of concepts within a domain and the relationships between those concepts. All three of these concepts are needed in defining metadata requirements.  When we prescribe the format of the data, e.g., text, integer, fixed decimal, the subject of the metadata is syntax.  When we describe the meaning of the data, for example, the units in which it is denominated or which factors are aggregated into it and which factors require different instantiations of the datum for each value of the factor, the subject of the metadata is semantics.  When we say that sets of variables have given relationships with one another, the subject of the metadata is ontology.

Metadata on the Required Inputs: The following elements have been observed to be useful for each input datum.

Metadata on the Delivered Outputs: The following elements have been observed to be useful for model outputs.

Metadata on the Internals of the Model: The following elements should be addressed to support the user of the model.

Metadata on Model VV&A: Verification, Validation and Accreditation metadata should include:

Metadata on the Collected Input Data: The following elements have been observed to be useful for collected input data.

The DoD metadata specification provides for three formats for metadata: text (comma separated) documentation, XML, and Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).  Other formats are possible, such as text with hyperlinks and a relational database. The DoD specification appears to be oriented toward describing large groups of homogenous data.  Unfortunately, it appears that in the DIME/PMESII domain much or most of the data will be found in bits and pieces, requiring separate metadata entries for each number, rather than for each file.  This situation makes the option of a relational database that contains the data values and the metadata much more attractive.


The VV&A requirements from the COMPOEX project were adapted to NRL needs.

Requirements Framework

NRL developed a set of requirements and vetted these with its DIME/PMESII Advisory Panel. It was advised that Metadata and VV&A requirements be added to the revised requirements framework.


1. C4I Analysis and Database Branch. Reverse Engineering for Data Integration and Sharing (REDIS) Methodology Manual [Draft]. C4I Test Division Electronic Proving Ground, Fort Huachuca, AZ, 1996.

2. Cipparone, John and Wayne Randolph. “Operations Other Than War: A FAST Toolbox for Warfighters,” PowerPoint Presentation at DMSO Technical Review, 14 July 2004. DRC, Vienna, VA, 2004.

3. Clemence, Robert C., et al. Verification, Validation, And Accreditation (VV&A). Evidence Based Research, Vienna, VA, 2007.

4. Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (Deputy Chief Information Officer). Department Of Defense Discovery Metadata Specification (DDDMS), Version 1.2. 3 January 2005.

5. DoDD 5000.59.

6. Hartley, D. S., III. Operations Other Than War: Requirements for Analysis Tools Research Report, K/DSRD-2098. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN, 1996.

7. Hartley, D. S., III and S. L. Packard. OOTW Tool Requirements in Relation to JWARS, Y/DSRD-3076. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN, 1998.

8. Hartley, D. S., III and S. L. Packard. OOTW Cost Tools, Y/DSRD-3099. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN, 1998.

9. Hartley, Dean S., III, Richard E. Bell, and Stephen L. Packard. OOTW Force Design Tools, Y/DSRD-3117. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN, 1999.

10. Hartley, Dean S., III and Richard E. Bell. OOTW Force Design Workshop Proceedings, Y/DSRD-3124. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN, 1999.

11. Hartley, D. S., III. PACOM Instability Indicators Workshop, Y/DSRD-3134. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN, 1999.

12. Hartley, D. S., III. Designing an OOTW Impact Analysis Tool, Y/DSRD-3148. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN, 2000.

13. Hartley, Dean S., III. MOOTW FAST Prototype Toolbox: FY05 Validation Strategy & Plan. DRC, Orlando, FL, 2005.

14. Hartley, Dean S., III. Operations Other Than War (OOTW) Flexible Asymmetric Simulation Technologies (FAST) Prototype Toolbox: ISSM v4.00 Analysts’ Guide. DRC, Orlando, FL, 2006.

15. Henningsen, Jacqueline, ed. Quick Response Analysis Requirements and Methodologies (QRAM) Mini-Symposium. MORS, Alexandria, VA, 1996.

16. Joint Staff. Joint Pub 5-0.

17. Knepell, Peter L. and Deborah C. Arangno. Simulation Validation: A Confidence Assessment Methodology. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA, 1993.

18. Lacy, Lee W., et al. “Experiences with using OWL in Military Applications,” in OWL: Experiences and Directions. Galway, Ireland, November 11-12, 2005., March 2008.

19. Lincoln, Don and Richard Gautier. Operations Other Than War (OOTW) Flexible Asymmetric Simulation Technologies (FAST) Prototype Toolbox Architecture Specification (Rev 1). DRC, Vienna, VA, 2004.

20. Staniec, Cyrus and Dean Hartley, eds. OOTW Analysis and Modeling Techniques (OOTWAMT) Workshop Proceedings. MORS, Alexandria, VA, 1997.

21. Tolk, Andreas. “Composable Mission Spaces and M&S Repositories – Applicability of Open Standards,” Paper 04S-SIW-009, April 2004.

22. Tolk, Andreas. “Metamodels and Mappings: Ending the Interoperability War,” Paper 04F-SIW-105, 2004.

23. Woodcock, Alexander and David Davis, eds. Analytic Approaches to the Study of Future Conflict. The Canadian Peacekeeping Press, Clementsport, Canada, 1996. 

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