Page Last Updated: EDT, 1998, 2016

Complex Operational and Organizational Problems

PROJECT: Requirements for Modeling Operations Other Than War (OOTW)

Dr. Dean S. Hartley III

Project Metadata Keywords
Label Name Other Year DurationYrs
Client US PACOM analysis US PACOM
Dates 1996 2
Employer DOE Oak Ridge Facilities
Partner N/A
Pubs "Modeling Presentations at National Conventions," Military Operations Research, Vol 2, No. 2, 1996 author 1996
Pubs Verification, Validation and Certification of Data," Simulation Data for Modeling (SIMDATAM) lead author 1996
Pubs Proceedings of the Electronic Simulation (ELECSIM) Conference '97 editor 1997
Pubs MORS Workshop on OOTW Analysis and Modeling Techniques (OOTWAMT) editor 1998
Pubs "Requirements for OOTW Analysis Tools," MORS Workshop on OOTW Analysis and Modeling Techniques (OOTWAMT), Cy Staniec, Dean Hartley, editors author 1998
Pubs Operations Other Than War: Requirements for Analysis Tools Research Report, K/DSRD-2098 author 1996
Pubs "Verification & Validation in Military Simulations," Proceedings of the 1997 Winter Simulation Conference, S. Andradottir, K. J. Healy, D. H. Withers, and B. L. Nelson, editors author 1997
Pubs "Modeling & Simulation Requirements for Operations Other Than War (OOTW)," Proceedings of the Japan/U.S. Operations Research Seminar (JUORS) VIII, 13-17 Oct 1997, Tokyo, Japan lead author 1997
Pubs "Supporting OOTW with Analysis: Missing Tools," MSOSA Special Interest Group: Operations Other Than War, Dean Hartley, editor author 1997
Pubs "Supporting OOTW with Analysis: Missing Tools," Proceedings of the Electronic Simulation (ELECSIM) Conference '97, Dean Hartley, editor author 1997
Pubs MSOSA Special Interest Group: Operations Other Than War editor 1997
Pubs Requirements for OOTW Analysis Tools, K/DSRD-3026 author 1997
Team Lynda Jaques, Michael G. Sovereign, Cy Staniec, Howard Whitley
Command and Control (C2, C3I, C4ISR)
Consequence Management
Geopolitical analysis
Global War on Terrorism (GWOT)
Human factors
Human, Social, Cultural Behavior (HSCB) Modeling
Impact analysis
Information storage and retrieval
Irregular Warfare (IW)
Knowledge Management (KM)
Markov chains
Operations Other Than War (OOTW)
Stability Operations (SASO, SSTR)


The past several years have seen an increasing recognition of the need for analysis tools to support planning and execution of military OOTWs. Analysis tools to support decision-making for large-scale military operations (such as major regional contingencies) are relatively mature. In contrast, OOTW analysis tools are embryonic or non-existent. Because the U.S. military involvement in OOTWs is expected to be increasingly frequent during the post-Cold-War era, USPACOM has argued that development of OOTW analysis tools should receive higher priority than continued enhancement of analysis tools for large-scale military operations.


USPACOM instituted a project to define the requirements for analysis tools to support OOTWs. These requirements would then influence the development of OOTW analysis capabilities within the Joint Warfare System (JWARS) [external], which is being developed under the sponsorship of the Office of the Secretary of Defense (Program Analysis & Evaluation). Because current plans for JWARS development do not call for OOTW analysis capabilities to be incorporated for several years, the project would also identify opportunities for developing interim OOTW analysis capabilities, including exploratory tools for possible incorporation into JWARS.

Department of Defense organizational participants and reviewers of the USPACOM project are shown in Table 1.

Table 1. DOD Approving Organizations

US Atlantic Command (USACOM)
US Central Command (USCENTCOM)
US European Command (USEUCOM)
US Pacific Command (USPACOM)
US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM)
US Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM)
Office of the Secretary of Defense Program Analysis and Evaluation (OSD PA&E)
The Joint Staff/J-8
US Air Force
US Army
US Marine Corps
US Navy


Figure 1 capsulizes the sequence of events over the duration of the project. USPACOM initiated the process and sponsored a workshop held at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey in February 1996. This workshop was attended by representatives of the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Joint Staff, the Unified Commands, the Services, and numerous other organizations. This author wrote a draft document based on that workshop, other conferences on OOTWs, and research of the literature on OOTWs. USPACOM sponsored a second Monterey workshop in September 1996 to review and extend the draft document. This workshop identified and categorized the many types of operations that can be considered operations other than war; examined the attributes of different kinds of OOTWs; and identified similarities and differences of U.S. military tasks that must be performed in OOTWs. The draft document was refined, creating a second draft, and USPACOM circulated the result to the Commanders in Chief (CINCs), the Services, Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), and J-8.

Figure 1. Project Overview

The final document provided the basis for the MORS workshop, which created more detailed plans for accomplishing the requirements. This process, and the detailed results obtained, are fully described in the publications listed in the metadata, above.  The details can also be found on the OOTW Tool Home Page.

OOTW Tool Home Page

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