The diversity of operations that may be categorized as OOTWs creates an initial organizational difficulty. A taxonomy was needed to aid in the discussion of the problem and to clarify potential solutions. The cube of three-way connections of categories, attributes, and tasks in Figure 1 illustrates the taxonomy of OOTW tools that was created to address this issue. The project defined the details of this taxonomy and, by so doing, created the analytical tools requirements. Based on similarities of requirements across different kinds of OOTWs, the similarity of tasks performed, the maturity of methods, and the availability of data to support tool development, the requirements were grouped into ten generic tools.

Figure 1. OOTW Analysis Taxonomy

The taxonomic indices (categories, attributes, and tasks) are briefly listed below. The values that were derived by creating this taxonomy are fully described in the research report [Hartley].


Following the second Monterey workshop and for purposes of this project, four OOTW categories have been defined: Peace Operations (PO), Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR), National Integrity (NI) operations, and Military Contingency operations. These four categories have been subdivided, resulting in 11 major subcategories, as shown in Table 1.

Table 1. OOTW Analysis Categories

Peace Operations (PO) Peacekeeping(PK)
Peace Enforcement (PE)
Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR) Operations Humanitarian Assistance
Disaster Relief (DR) - foreign
DR - Domestic
National Integrity (NI) Operations Counterdrug (CD)
Combatting Terrorism (CT)
CounterInsurgency (CI)
National Assistance (NA)
Military Contingency Operations Noncombatant Evacuation Operations (NEO)
Many Others


Fifty OOTW attributes were identified and organized an expansion of the Army's Mission, Enemy, Troops, Terrain/Weather and Time Available (METT-T) paradigm. For OOTW use, "enemy" has been expanded to include both human and physical opposition (such as volcanos); "troops" may refer to friendly non-military and non-U.S. personnel; and "terrain/weather" has been expanded to include both the physical environment of terrain and weather and the human geopolitical environment. The values of certain attributes discriminate among the OOTW categories and these attributes were labeled "definitive." Table 2 displays the list of attributes.

Table 2. OOTW Analysis Attributes

Mission: Rationale
  Mission, objectives, and MOEs
  Political vs Economic vs Ideological vs Symbolic Interest
Mission: Assistance requirements
  Assistance required
Mission: Constraints
  Degree of risk
  Use of force
  Level of intensity
  Scope of conflict
  Degree of Casualties
  Potential $ cost direct
  Potential $ cost indirect
  Human enemy exists
  Information/intelligence availability
Troops: Force structure
  Command structure
  Force mix
  Integrated planning
  Need for CMOC
  Need for HAST
  Use of liaisons
  Logistics / resupply
  Military capabilities of opposing sides
  Military technology
  Force size / force ratio / preponderance of force
Troops: NonU.S., Nonmilitary
  Level of host nation support/infrastructure
  Involvement of other nations
  Degree of UN involvement
  Degree of U.S. agency involvement
  Scale of NGO/PVO involvement
  Extent of coalition
  Host government stability
Terrain/Weather (Environment): Location
  Distance from United States
  Size of operating area/demographics
Terrain/Weather (Environment): Geopolitics
  Geopolitical environment
  Cultural Dissimilarities/ ethnic conflict
  Interests of Other Nations
  Great Power involvement
  Political sphere
  Media attention
  U.S. public support
  Planning/Reaction Time


53 OOTW tasks were identified and grouped into non-mission-related analyses and phases of mission planning and execution. Following the second Monterey workshop, the tasks have been regrouped into seven groups: non-mission-related analysis; mission definition and analysis; Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I); mobilization/deployment; force employment; sustainment; and redeployment. The tasks were defined and related to the Uniform Joint Task List (UJTL), version 3.0 [Joint Staff]. Table 3 shows the tasks in the non-mission-related analysis group.

Table 3. Tasks

Non-Mission-Related Tasks
  Provide instability forecast, impact forecast (psychosocial)
  Estimate cost of operations
Mission Definition and Analysis Tasks
  Develop mission, MOEs, etc.
  Determine ROEs
  Define endstate, transition criteria
  Determine force structure
  Determine force mix
  Estimate readiness
  Evaluate risks and do 'worst case' gaming
  Estimate robustness of mission success
C3I Tasks
  Create command arrangements, span of control
  Develop courses of action (COAs)
  Perform staff estimates
  Evaluate COAs
  Maintain measures of effectiveness (MOEs), including probability of mission success and end-state status
  Monitor situation and provide feedback
  Activate joint task force (JTF)
  Establish liaisons/civil-military operations center (CMOC)
  Design and install communications
  Perform intelligence collection and intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR)
  Establish cultural awareness
  Establish red teams
  Perform mission, enemy, troops, terrain/weather - time (METTT) analysis
  Identify centers of gravity
  Estimate threat
  Support media/public affairs
  Execute psychological operations (PSYOPS)
Mobilization/Deployment Tasks
  Initiate appropriate reserve callup
  Determine deployment timing
  Determine deployment priorities
  Determine transport capabilities
  Activate humanitarian assistance survey team (HAST)
  Activate CMOC
Force Employment Tasks
  Establish lines of communication (LOCs)
  Protect forces
  Allocate and station forces
  Assess casualties
  Identify infrastructure improvement requirements
  Support humanitarian operations
  Evaluate potential use of force
  Rehearse missions
  Perform interdictions, raids, stings, infiltration
Sustainment Tasks
  Balance tooth to tail ratio
  Perform logistics planning/resupply
  Provide transport support
  Provide engineering support
  Provide medical support
  Provide joint/interagency/coalition support
  Provide indigenous/client/refugee support
Redeployment Tasks
  Determine priorities: effectiveness vs availability/feasibility
  Reposition assets
  Perform transition
  Determine reconstitution requirements


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